I know many of you are just learning to sew…..or maybe you have sewn for a while but aren’t as familiar with sewing terms. I have been meaning to do this for a while — but I have finally put together a list of common sewing terms and techniques that you can read and review while putting a sewing project together. And then I’ll also include it with all of my sewing posts, as an easy reference. Then, I can skip some of the definitions within my sewing posts (because I forget half the time)….and those who need it, can just click over and reference this post.
So, for those who need to learn a few new sewing terms…
Or for those who need a refresher…
Okay, let’s jump in…
Grain refers to the orientation of the fiber pieces that are woven or knit together to create fabric. Materials such as leather or fleece do not have a grain because they are not woven together. If you look really closely at the fabric below, there are little fibers that run parallel and perpendicular to the selvage. This is the grain of the fabric. You can use these grain lines in the fabric as a guide, to create straight lines that are either perpendicular or parallel to the selvage. In fact, sometimes the print on the fabric (like stripes) may be a little off, so don’t always rely on the print do give you an exact line along the grain of the fabric. Always looks a little closer at the actual grain, to get the best results with your sewing projects! (The fabric image below is a woven fabric….but knit fabrics also have a grain. More on that below.)
THE “BIAS” OF YOUR FABRIC:
The bias of the fabric is the diagonal line between the horizontal and vertical grain lines explained above. And by diagonal, I mean a 45 degree slice between those lines.
So, if you look at a piece of fabric flat in front of you and the selvage is laying right along the bottom, that would mean that your horizontal grain lines are also running perfectly straight across from left to right. This would also mean that your vertical lines are running perfectly up and down, creating a nice 90 degree angle to your selvage. The BIAS LINE would run at an exact 45 degree angle from the selvage.
However, if you don’t want to get a protractor out, the best way I have found to find the bias, is to use your selvage as a guide and cut your fabric at a 90 degree angle (I use the corner of a table or counter as a guide). Then, fold the cut edge down to the selvage edge and line up those edges. This fold will create your 45 degree angle line. (More about cutting along the BIAS and creating BIAS TAPE here.)
When a fabric is woven, its fibers are interlaced in a crisscross pattern, horizontally and vertically. Think of weaving strips of paper together in grade school, when you’d interlace the paper to create one big woven swath of paper. Woven fabric is the same way. Because of this weaving method, woven fabric tends to hold its shape better and doesn’t really stretch. This can be helpful when trying to keep things precise while sewing and perfectly even and straight. So, CUTTING ALONG THE GRAIN of the fabric, means cutting parallel to the woven fibers of the fabric.
However, when cut along the grain, the fibers release and start to unravel, causing fraying along the edges over time. One way to slow down the fraying of woven fabric, is to cut along the bias (like explained above). This stops each row of woven threads and tends to slow down the fraying process. Also, when woven fabric is pulled along the bias, it has a slight stretch to it, causing it to hang a little differently and manipulate a little better around curves (which is why bias tape is so useful).
When a fabric is knit, there is one continuous thread being looped together back and forth. Upon close inspection, the pattern almost looks like braiding. Because of that loopy, braided technique, the fabric has a lot more give and stretch. Knit fabric is a great friend to the crafter because once cut, its edges don’t fray like wovens do, since it’s only one continuous thread rather than many separate threads.
Depending on the type of knit fabric, the edges may curl a bit once they’re cut, but if the curled edge doesn’t affect the look of the project much, it doesn’t really matter. Remember, it’s the method, not the type of fiber, that distinguishes whether a fabric is woven or knit. Cotton, rayon, wool, polyester, and silk can all be woven OR knit.
IDENTIFYING WOVEN/KNIT FABRIC:
Grab your fabric and stretch it side to side and from top to bottom, in the same direction as the grain. If it stretches in one of those directions (or both), it is probably a knit. If it doesn’t stretch with the grain and only stretches slightly on the bias, it’s most likely a woven. The only time a woven fabric will stretch with the grain, is if elastic fibers are woven into the fabric.
SYNTHETIC FABRIC (Nylon/Polyester/Rayon):
Synthetic fabric is made from man-made materials. Most are quite sensitive to heat and are more prone to melting while ironing and steaming. Sometimes a synthetic fabric will give you the look and flow you’re seeking, but just be aware of how it responds to sewing/ironing when selecting fabrics that are synthetic.
“RIGHT” AND “WRONG” SIDES OF FABRIC:
Most fabrics have designated sides that are meant to be “seen” and “not seen”. Each side will likely have a different color or texture, or both. If your fabric has a design printed onto it, you will notice that the “right” side is more vibrant. Sometimes it’s hard to tell the difference between the sides and if that’s the case, it won’t like matter which side you choose as the “right’ side.
PLACE “RIGHT” SIDES TOGETHER:
While reading sewing patterns, you’ll often see the words, “sew the two pieces together with RIGHT sides together”. This means to place the sides of the fabric that you want to be seen (the printed/smooth/prefrered sides) and then sew as instructed.
Then, when the fabric is turned right side out, the seam will be hidden.
PLACE “WRONG” SIDES TOGETHER:
Sometimes a pattern instruction will say to place the WRONG sides of the fabric together. There is a reason for this and that reason will generally make sense as you go. But this just means to place the unwanted sides together….and then continue on with the instructions.
STITCHES AND SEAMS:
A stitch is a loop of thread that is created by a needle pulling it through fabric. A seam is a line of stitches that can either hold two pieces of fabric together or can be used as a decorative line of stitches. (For more practice, check out my Practice your Sewing Stitches tutorial HERE.)
The size of each stitch within your seam can be adjusted by different knobs on your sewing machine. Seams can be created in many designs but the most common is a straight line or a zig-zag. (More about practicing your seams and stitches here.)
Backstitching is sewing backward over your stitches to keep the ends of your thread from unraveling. Generally, you will sew forward a few stitches, then backstitch a few stitches, and then continue on forward sewing. You don’t want to backstitch back and forth too much or you’ll create a big lump of thread and will likely pucker your fabric. So, I generally sew forward 3-4 stitches, backstitch the same amount, and then continue sewing forward.
A basting stitch is a set of long stitches (as in turn your stitch length up to the longest possible) that are usually used to hold something together temporarily. For example, sometimes you’ll baste two pieces of fabric together to keep them in place while you sew those 2 pieces to another piece of fabric. Or sometimes you’ll baste an applique onto your fabric to keep it in place while you then sew the edges down permanently. I probably baste the most often when I am creating gathers or ruffles. You can baste by hand or set your machine to its longest stitch and do a machine baste. (I hardly ever baste by hand.) I also use the basting stitch quite often as a decorative stitch or as a border around different shapes on my projects.
Sewing a topstitch is when you sew along the top (or the “right” side) of the fabric. Generally, it parallels a seam or the edge of your fabric, to give the item a more tailored or professional look. I like to increase my stitch length just a bit when sewing a top stitch and this is because the needle hops over more of the fabric and doesn’t stretch out the fabric as much, but also allows for more thread to show with each stitch. (Sometimes you will hear the word edgestitch. This is basically the same thing….but really close to the edge of the fabric, like a hem.)
A seam allowance is the distance between the edge of the fabric and the sewn line. When sewing any project, a pattern designer always includes some sort of seam allowance into the pattern pieces, so that the finished project will turn out with the intended measurements. A very common seam allowance is 5/8 inch and this notch is usually the most visible sewing line on the sewing machine. (However, my machine below displays every measurement the same.)
***The same measurements are to the left of the needle.
However, smaller projects usually call for smaller seam allowances. And I actually prefer using smaller seam allowances because it’s less to trim off later. But, different people prefer different things, and that’s okay! But whatever the seam allowance, check your machine for your seam allowance guide or mark a line that you can line up the edge of your fabric with, and sew an even seam allowance along your fabric.
The hem is the edge of the fabric that has been folded under and sewn to keep the raw edge hidden and from unraveling. There are different techniques to hem fabric but the most common way is to fold the edge under once, another time, and then sew in place. The amount you fold the fabric under for your hem, depends on the author of the pattern you’re using, or personal preference.
CLIP CORNERS AND CURVES:
When sewing an item together, you’ll often see the instructions say to sew “right” sides together…and then turn right side out and iron flat. However, before turning right side out, you need to minimize the bulk around curves and corners, so that after you turn it right side out, it will lay flat and have crisp edges and lines. You will need to clip straight lines into curves that look like a valley, cut notches into curves that look like a mountain, and then cut corners straight off…..in order to help with turning fabric right side out. (More about clipping corners and curves here.)
Gathering is a sewing technique used to shorten the length of your fabric piece so that you can then attach it to a shorter piece of fabric. There are several techniques to gather fabric and I discuss the simpler cheater method and the more proper way over on my Making and Attaching Gathered Fabric tutorial HERE.
This is pretty self explanatory…hand stitching is done with your hand. And a needle and thread. Whenever possible, I use my sewing machine but sometimes, there are things that need to be sewn with a needle and thread. And when that happens, it’s important to know how to do that. There are several techniques and methods you can use….but the ones I use most often and shared on my Hand Stitching tutorial.
Interfacing is a textile attached to the “wrong” side of the fabric, to help stiffen up the fabric, when it’s otherwise too flimsy. More about interfacing, fusible adhesive, and fusible webbing HERE.
These are some of the most common terms used here on my site and many other sewing patterns and tutorials. If you think of any others that you’d like a better description of, just let me know!
Now, go on and pull out that machine…..and get sewing!!